Share The performance of the African aviation industry is still lagging behind those of the rest of the world. Over the periodAfrica will be the third fastest growing region in the world in terms of international traffic with an average growth rate of 6. This trend is expected to continue in the coming years due to a number of factors, notably robust economic growth, demographic boom, increasing urbanization, and emergence of the middle class.
In Zimbabwe, the tourism industry is regulated mainly through the Tourism Act [Chapter Despite the importance of tourism, the sector has been operating without a guiding policy framework. Development of the industry was premised on the concept of low volume high yield tourism which was not backed by any concrete policy framework.
The inconsistence and irregularities of the policy framework has resulted in declining tourist arrivals and potential tourism investors shunning the destination. Findings indicated that the tourism policy framework can take the destination to dizzy heights of competitiveness only if government commits more political will to tourism issues.
The policy document is very good but lack of commitment and implementation by the government may result in continued poor performance of destination Zimbabwe. Destination competitiveness is the ability of a destination to provide goods and services that compete and perform better than those offered by other tourist destinations on those aspects that guarantee an unforgettable tourism experience that are important to tourists Dwyer et al.
Devon and Boyd concur by stating that a government policy is a plan of action agreed to by a group of people with the power to carry it out and enforce it. Competitiveness is increasingly being seen as a critical stimuli on the performance of tourism destinations competitive global markets Porter, Ritchie and Crouch consider destinations competitiveness to have tremendous ramifications for the tourism industry and is consequently a considerable concern to practitioners and policy makers.
Zimbabwe has failed to maintain a constant tourism growth since the turn of the new millennium. This is despite the fact that Zimbabwe boasts an array of tourism resources such as the big five, Victoria Falls and man- made features like Kariba Dam and Great Zimbabwe.
Despite these positive strengths Zimbabwe has major weaknesses with its competitiveness as a destination. The Tourism Policy framework has failed to take into account other impacts caused by the existence of other national policies like the Indigenization Policy and the Land Redistribution Act which threaten Foreign Direct Investment and private property rights.
These are irreversible policies and the Zimbabwe Tourism Policy must be crafted in such a way as to circumvent these challenges posed by these policies. The hospitality and tourism sector in Zimbabwe went through a swift progression after the nation attained its independence in In the period from independence tothe arrivals of tourists rose at a yearly average percentage of However, this is still a measly figure considering the potential Zimbabwe has as a destination.
After the turn of the century, the tourism sector in Zimbabwe has produced its worst performance.
After the Land Reform Program inZimbabwe experienced a sharp decline in the number of tourist arrivals Muleya, ; Sanderson et al. The decline was particularly marked in respect of the major Western markets. Consequently the country suffered a major decrease in its tourism receipts Sachikonye Some tour operators decided to relocate to other countries Muleya, ; Ndlovu, Although there was a significant increase in arrivals between andthe increase was mainly in respect of the Eastern and Asian markets ZTA, These tourists are low spenders and their presence cannot produce and complete revival of the tourism industry ZTA, Despite these assets, Zimbabwe has main weaknesses with its tourism international competitiveness as it is distantly ranked on position th out of the countries surveyed.
On the business environment sub-index Zimbabwe is ranked th and th on the human, cultural and natural resources sub-index out of the countries surveyed.
The policy environment was ranked th out of the countries surveyed and it continues to be one of the least supporters of travel and tourism, with awfully poor laws that do not protect Foreign Direct Investment and property rights.
The TTC Report posits that safety and security was also a major concern, with the high crime and violence and a lack of trust in the police to provide protection from crime. Zimbabwe was therefore ranked th out of the surveyed for safety and security. Zimbabwe is also said to be not well disposed in terms of its human resources as it is ranked distantly on number th as it possesses low enrollment rates in both its primary and secondary schools.
In terms of health indicators Zimbabwe was ranked th out of the surveyed, indicating one of the poorest health systems in the world. Business Environment, th for air transport, 95th for surface transport and the tourism infrastructure is ranked th, ICT Infrastructure is ranked at position th and on one of the indicators of the business environment which is price competitiveness, it is ranked on position 65 th.
For affinity and desire for travel and tourism, the country is ranked position 99 th and on cultural resources the nation is ranked th. Costa says that for tourism policy and planning to be effective, there is need to create a framework where the public and the private sectors of the economy work together to set goals and priorities for guiding the future of the tourism industry.
In all government sectors were given the mandate to reflect and come up with policies that re-define and re-align the course of their primary industries and re-align them with their current trends Herald, The traditional role of government is to formulate policy for the tourism sector.
Today the focus has changed because of changing priorities occasioned by development in the international tourism scene. The challenge for national governments is to formulate tourism sector policies that best reflect the new thinking Dieke, Some important areas needing policy re- orientation or re- focusing are consultation with local communities in the planning process; forging partnership with the private sector; liberal immigration regulations to facilitate free tourist movement; tourism infrastructure development policy to facilitate tourism development, for the benefit not just for tourism but the wider society.
The last policy issue needs to be linked to devising viable and sensible options for financing tourism infrastructure.Legal and political environment provides a framework within the business is to function and its existence depends on the success with which it can face the various challenges constructed out of political and legal framework.
Tour operators are at the forefront of the travel and tourism industry, constantly seeking out new destinations and holiday experiences to satisfy the ever-demanding and ever-changing needs of .
Medical tourism is a growing phenomenon with policy implications for health systems, particularly of destination countries. Private actors and governments in Southeast Asia are promoting the medical tourist industry, but the potential impact on health systems, particularly in terms of equity in access and availability for local consumers, is unclear.
PEST analysis is an analysis of the political, economic, social and technological factors in the external environment of an organization, which can affect its activities and performance.
Published: Tue, 16 May The present report contains information on the legal and regulatory framework of the British tourism sector as well as of surface, sea and air transport laws and analyses the benefits of those to passengers. P – Explain the legal and regulatory framework of the travel and tourism sector The legislation and the tourism industry are connected in more ways than one can think.
Tourism industry involves, sellers, suppliers, business organizations, consumers, contracts, hospitality so on and so forth.